TECHNICAL LIBRARY on Lightning Protection
Static Charge Grounding based on Charge Dissipation Technology: Static electricity generation cannot be prevented, but it can be mitigated or controlled by providing means of recombining separated charges as rapidly as they are produced and before sparking voltages are obtained. Tanks, which store and transfer flammable fluids have suffered in-tank fires leading to the complete loss of equipment and products, and are often accompanied by personnel injuries even when these tanks are equipped with in-tank ground rods. The Charge Transfer System (CTS) was recently developed to reduce the likelihood of lightning strikes directly to the premises.
Lightning Protection based on Streamer Prevention Technology: The conventional lightning protection technology is easy to understand and economical to install. In the years since Benjamin Franklin invented the traditional sharp Franklin Rod, many of his rods have reduced lightning damage to structures, but it is widely recognized that objects within their vicinity are sometimes struck. The need for lightning protection technologies that can reduce the probability of direct lightning strikes to protected objects is indisputable, and this paper explains the Streamer Prevention Technology that is widely used today to reduce lightning damage to facilities.
Lightning Protection based on Early Streamer Emission Technology: Manufacturers of lightning protection air terminals have offered many solutions to mitigate damages arising from lightning; however, there are still adequate deficiencies in the effectiveness of lightning protection systems. Appolonov, V.V. et al.,  stated that the existing air terminals being used currently were not always in a position to ensure the desired level of efficiency. From their studies, Norfizah, O., and Zafirah, A.,  determined that conventional air terminals were inefficient in capturing lightning downwards leader. In the 1980s, the ESE air terminals with electrical triggering devices were introduced to provide more control over ion production at the tip of the terminal at which the electrically-triggered device produces ionization.
Chemical Grounding: The connection to the earth or the electrode system needs to have a sufficiently low resistance to help permit prompt operation of the circuit protective devices in the event of a ground fault, to provide the required safety from shock to personnel who may be in the vicinity of equipment frames, enclosures, conductors, or the electrodes themselves, and to limit transient over-voltages.The development of a low-resistance ground electrode is of paramount importance to satisfy the goals of each type of grounding system.
Research Report for EVALUATION OF EMISSION CURRENT FROM STREAMER PREVENTION TERMINALS AND LINEAR DISSIPATERS AT SWITCHING IMPULSE by S. Grzybowski, Dr. Hab., Ph.D., LF IEEE: The purpose of this research activity is to measure the response of dissipater type terminals and compared to a Franklin Rod. Two different configurations will be tested, and for the linear dissipater configuration two different dimension of terminal will be provided by the customer. Space charge develops in an air gap from the application of switching impulse voltage on a simulated cloud (metal screen). Emission current is measured from the terminal in the air gap. The V-t characteristic is determined for the terminals in the air gap. Surface charge on a fiberglass tank wall is developed using externally applied switching impulse on a conducting metal band. Emission current is measured from the removal of space charge and surface charge inside the tank.